Exercises 14.4 Exercises
1.
What are the orders of all Sylow \(p\)subgroups where \(G\) has order \(18\text{,}\) \(24\text{,}\) \(54\text{,}\) \(72\text{,}\) and \(80\text{?}\)
If \(G = 18 = 2 \cdot 3^2\text{,}\) then the order of a Sylow \(2\)subgroup is \(2\text{,}\) and the order of a Sylow \(3\)subgroup is \(9\text{.}\)
2.
Find all the Sylow \(3\)subgroups of \(S_4\) and show that they are all conjugate.
The four Sylow \(3\)subgroups of \(S_4\) are \(P_1 = \{ (1), (123), (132) \}\text{,}\) \(P_2 = \{ (1), (124), (142) \}\text{,}\) \(P_3 = \{ (1), (134), (143) \}\text{,}\) \(P_4 = \{ (1), (234), (243) \}\text{.}\)
3.
Show that every group of order \(45\) has a normal subgroup of order \(9\text{.}\)
4.
Let \(H\) be a Sylow \(p\)subgroup of \(G\text{.}\) Prove that \(H\) is the only Sylow \(p\)subgroup of \(G\) contained in \(N(H)\text{.}\)
5.
Prove that no group of order \(96\) is simple.
Since \(G = 96 = 2^5 \cdot 3\text{,}\) \(G\) has either one or three Sylow \(2\)subgroups by the Third Sylow Theorem. If there is only one subgroup, we are done. If there are three Sylow \(2\)subgroups, let \(H\) and \(K\) be two of them. Therefore, \(H \cap K \geq 16\text{;}\) otherwise, \(HK\) would have \((32 \cdot 32)/8 = 128\) elements, which is impossible. Thus, \(H \cap K\) is normal in both \(H\) and \(K\) since it has index \(2\) in both groups.
6.
Prove that no group of order \(160\) is simple.
7.
If \(H\) is a normal subgroup of a finite group \(G\) and \(H = p^k\) for some prime \(p\text{,}\) show that \(H\) is contained in every Sylow \(p\)subgroup of \(G\text{.}\)
8.
Let \(G\) be a group of order \(p^2 q^2\text{,}\) where \(p\) and \(q\) are distinct primes such that \(q \nmid p^2  1\) and \(p \nmid q^2  1\text{.}\) Prove that \(G\) must be abelian. Find a pair of primes for which this is true.
Show that \(G\) has a normal Sylow \(p\)subgroup of order \(p^2\) and a normal Sylow \(q\)subgroup of order \(q^2\text{.}\)
9.
Show that a group of order \(33\) has only one Sylow \(3\)subgroup.
10.
Let \(H\) be a subgroup of a group \(G\text{.}\) Prove or disprove that the normalizer of \(H\) is normal in \(G\text{.}\)
False.
11.
Let \(G\) be a finite group whose order is divisible by a prime \(p\text{.}\) Prove that if there is only one Sylow \(p\)subgroup in \(G\text{,}\) it must be a normal subgroup of \(G\text{.}\)
12.
Let \(G\) be a group of order \(p^r\text{,}\) \(p\) prime. Prove that \(G\) contains a normal subgroup of order \(p^{r1}\text{.}\)
13.
Suppose that \(G\) is a finite group of order \(p^n k\text{,}\) where \(k \lt p\text{.}\) Show that \(G\) must contain a normal subgroup.
14.
Let \(H\) be a subgroup of a finite group \(G\text{.}\) Prove that \(g N(H) g^{1} = N(gHg^{1})\) for any \(g \in G\text{.}\)
15.
Prove that a group of order \(108\) must have a normal subgroup.
16.
Classify all the groups of order \(175\) up to isomorphism.
17.
Show that every group of order \(255\) is cyclic.
If \(G\) is abelian, then \(G\) is cyclic, since \(G = 3 \cdot 5 \cdot 17\text{.}\) Now look at Example 14.14.
18.
Let \(G\) have order \(p_1^{e_1} \cdots p_n^{e_n}\) and suppose that \(G\) has \(n\) Sylow \(p\)subgroups \(P_1, \ldots, P_n\) where \(P_i = p_i^{e_i}\text{.}\) Prove that \(G\) is isomorphic to \(P_1 \times \cdots \times P_n\text{.}\)
19.
Let \(P\) be a normal Sylow \(p\)subgroup of \(G\text{.}\) Prove that every inner automorphism of \(G\) fixes \(P\text{.}\)
20.
What is the smallest possible order of a group \(G\) such that \(G\) is nonabelian and \(G\) is odd? Can you find such a group?
21. The Frattini Lemma.
If \(H\) is a normal subgroup of a finite group \(G\) and \(P\) is a Sylow \(p\)subgroup of \(H\text{,}\) for each \(g \in G\) show that there is an \(h\) in \(H\) such that \(gPg^{1} = hPh^{1}\text{.}\) Also, show that if \(N\) is the normalizer of \(P\text{,}\) then \(G= HN\text{.}\)
22.
Show that if the order of \(G\) is \(p^nq\text{,}\) where \(p\) and \(q\) are primes and \(p>q\text{,}\) then \(G\) contains a normal subgroup.
23.
Prove that the number of distinct conjugates of a subgroup \(H\) of a finite group \(G\) is \([G : N(H) ]\text{.}\)
Define a mapping between the right cosets of \(N(H)\) in \(G\) and the conjugates of \(H\) in \(G\) by \(N(H) g \mapsto g^{1} H g\text{.}\) Prove that this map is a bijection.
24.
Prove that a Sylow \(2\)subgroup of \(S_5\) is isomorphic to \(D_4\text{.}\)
25. Another Proof of the Sylow Theorems.

Suppose \(p\) is prime and \(p\) does not divide \(m\text{.}\) Show that
\begin{equation*} p \nmid \binom{p^k m}{p^k}\text{.} \end{equation*} Let \({\mathcal S}\) denote the set of all \(p^k\) element subsets of \(G\text{.}\) Show that \(p\) does not divide \({\mathcal S}\text{.}\)
Define an action of \(G\) on \({\mathcal S}\) by left multiplication, \(aT = \{ at : t \in T \}\) for \(a \in G\) and \(T \in {\mathcal S}\text{.}\) Prove that this is a group action.
Prove \(p \nmid  {\mathcal O}_T\) for some \(T \in {\mathcal S}\text{.}\)
Let \(\{ T_1, \ldots, T_u \}\) be an orbit such that \(p \nmid u\) and \(H = \{ g \in G : gT_1 = T_1 \}\text{.}\) Prove that \(H\) is a subgroup of \(G\) and show that \(G = u H\text{.}\)
Show that \(p^k\) divides \(H\) and \(p^k \leq H\text{.}\)
Show that \(H = {\mathcal O}_T \leq p^k\text{;}\) conclude that therefore \(p^k = H\text{.}\)
26.
Let \(G\) be a group. Prove that \(G' = \langle a b a^{1} b^{1} : a, b \in G \rangle\) is a normal subgroup of \(G\) and \(G/G'\) is abelian. Find an example to show that \(\{ a b a^{1} b^{1} : a, b \in G \}\) is not necessarily a group.
Let \(a G', b G' \in G/G'\text{.}\) Then \((a G')( b G') = ab G' = ab(b^{1}a^{1}ba) G' = (abb^{1}a^{1})ba G' = ba G'\text{.}\)